Born in Nancy where he studied under Girardet and Claudot (who had also taught Augustin (see M6 - M14) a few years before. He went to Paris in 1786 where he received some patronage from Marie-Antoinette, but his real rise to fame was through his pupil, Hortense de Beauharnais. She provided his introduction to Napoleon, whose Court Painter he became. He had a busy studio to help him produce the numerous miniatures of Napoleon which were commissioned from him, and he also designed festivities for the Imperial Court. He worked in Vienna as painter to the Congress in 1815, and official patronage was continued by Louis XVIII, Charles X and Louis –Philippe. His use of paper stretched over metal for his later miniatures was a technical innovation which assisted the fluency and luminous quality of his larger portrait miniatures. He died in Paris.