Born 1677 in Montpellier where he first learned with Antoine Ranc. His first dated work is from 1699. By 1704 when he won the Grand Prix at the Academy (David and Goliath; unlocated), he is documented as living in Paris. He was in Italy probably from 1705 and returned to Paris in 1714. He began his Italian sejourn in Rome but spent most of the stay in Venice. His interest in Venetian painting remained visible in his work for the rest of his career. Back in Paris, he was officially received at the Académie in 1717 on the same day as Watteau, Raoux's reception piece being the Pygmalion now in the Louvre. In 1720/1721 he spent some time in England.Raoux died in 1734.
Raoux painted innovative genre scens inspired by Dutch models and was very important for the development of the mythological portrait. As a personal speciality, he developed portraits and genre scenes of Roman Vestals. Philippe de Vendôme and Joseph Bonnier de la Mosson were among his major patrons.